Who hasn’t dreamed of seeing matter transformed in a way that suits you? This is the goal of 4D printing, using materials that can change in terms of shape and property under the effect of energy stimulation.
From the description of the actions and actuators, the authors show the weaknesses that limit the industrialization of 4D printing processes; these are the modes of energy stimulation. To prepare for the future, two chapters are introduced: “Material-Process Duality in Industrial 4D Printing” and “How to Approach 4D Printing in Design”.
If the capture and reuse of 4D printing knowledge is necessary for this objective, the conclusion leaves the existing myth around the 4D printing theme and proposes a “draft” roadmap that should be the subject of reflection and scientific debate on a concept that is still immature, but full of promise.
1. Getting Things Moving.
2. Energy Stimulation: The Abandonned Child?
3. Material-Process Duality in Industrial 4D Printing.
4. Design for 4D Printing.
Frédéric Demoly is a Full Professor at UTBM, France, and a department director at the CNRS (French National Center for Scientific Research). His research focuses on design for 4D printing using computational intelligence, and on multi-material additive manufacturing processes.
Jean-Claude André is a Research Director at the CNRS and Professor Emeritus at the University of Lorraine, France. He is developing research on new 3D printing processes and works alongside Frédéric Demoly on 4D printing.
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