Inventing isn’t easy! In this book, twelve “valleys of death” are identified which, following a linear approach, correspond to the various obstacles that limit the various passages from an original idea to invention, and then to industrial innovation. These various limiting factors have a variety of origins: disciplined scientific training, weak general and scientific culture, New Public Management, hierarchical support, funding, evaluation, proof of concepts, complexity management, and heuristic and interdisciplinary approaches on the one hand, and attractiveness for the new on the other.
After an idea is formulated, these contexts bring small elements of science into play, but above all human aspects ranging from motivation and the quality of exchanges to responsibility. In short, it is a possible dynamic way of living together to promote innovations stemming from science. This is not easy, but if the invention is profitable for society, the downstream sector can greatly facilitate the various stages of commercialization.
1. Invention: Creativity to Proof of Concept.
2. From Invention to Innovation.
Jean-Claude André is an ENSIC engineer and CNRS director, and has been involved in the research into light-matter interactions, which has led him to 3D and 4D printing. These examples have been matched by industrial transfers through support for start-ups.
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